1899.] ox THE CAxiD.i; OF ArnicA. 533 5. On the Species of Canida found on the Continent of Africa. By W. E. de Winton, F.Z.S. [Eeceived March 0, 1S99.] The acquisition by the Society of two hviog Jackals from SomaH- land, of the species called by Prof. Noack Ccmis hagenbecM, hitherto unknown in a living state in this country, enforced the necessity of re-examining the African Dogs, and our Secretary has asked me to undertake the task. This comnunication is not confined to the Jackals of the Ethiopian E-egiou, but takes in all the members of the family of Canida) inhabiting the continent of Africa. While endeavouring to throw some light into the hopeless confusion the nomenclature of the Jackals of Africa is now in, I do not expect the present communication to clear up all the disputable points ; but it is hoped that by sifting the old descriptions and giving an account of the forms so far as are known to the principal Museums and Zoological Gardens of Europe, some better agreement as to which names shall be applied to certain forms may be arrived at. In no single museum is there to be found a good representative collection of the different African species, so that it is extremely hard to make comparisons and to recall exact characters of specimens examined in different museums. The type specimens of the older described forms have been in most cases mounted, therefore faded and worn almost beyond recognition, and the skidls inaccessible. One species, Canis lateralis, described by Dr. Sclater in 1870, from West Africa, has since been generally considered to be identical with the C. adushts of Suudevall. So far as I can make out, the probability is that Sundevall had an example of 0. late- ralis before him, as it doubtless extends into S.E. Africa. But Avithout examining the type it is impossible to be certain on this point, and 1 prefer to use the iirst name, of which there can be no doubt, as in this way no confusion can occur on the subject in the future. Dr. Noack has lately published, from not at all satisfactory material, descriptions of four additional forms which I have little hesitation in assigning to one or other of the already well-known species. I am quite prepared, however, to find that this subject will soon require revision. If, when we know more of the African Jackals, further subspecies are thought necessary, it will be quite evident, on looking at the synonymy given in this paper, that some of these names can be utilized, but so far I see very little use in subdividing the species. I consider the Jackals and Eoxes of the Old World so readily recognizable one from another that I should like to keep them apart, though no important character by which to distinguish them can be given. Even the outM'ard characters and habits are beyond my power to define ; and I regret to say that even Dr. Blanford's distinctions (Geol. & Zool. Abyss, p. 239) will not stand when Peoc. Zool, Soc— 1899, ]N"o. XXXV. 35



5. On the Species of Canidœ found on the Continent of Africa

W E De Winton
Proceedings of The Zoological Society of London 1899: 533-555 (1899)

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